CHAPTER I - SCOPE OF APPLICATION
1. This Convention shall apply to judgments in civil and commercial matters rendered by a court of one Contracting State, including maintenance matters, status of natural persons, matrimonial matters, and custody of and access to children.
2. This Convention shall not apply to judgments for the recovery of taxes, duties, fines or monetary penalties, nor to those rendered by administrative tribunals.
3. Judgments that determine any of the following shall also be excluded from the application of this Convention:
(a) bankruptcy, insolvency or the winding up of companies or other artificial persons;
(b) the legal capacity of natural persons;
(c) guardianship of children involving public authorities;
(d) the management of the affairs of persons not capable of managing their own affairs;
(e) succession to or the administration of the estates of deceased persons.
This Convention shall apply to judgments rendered after the Convention comes into force. However, this Convention shall apply regardless of the date on which the judgments on maintenance matters, status of natural persons, and custody of and access to children were rendered.